Ayn Arik ( عين عريك ) Profile

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Ayn Arik - قرية عين عريك - Ramallah - Palestine

Location and Physical Characteristics

Ayn Arik is a Palestinian village in the Ramallah Governorate located 5.6km northeast of Ramallah City. Ayn Arik is bordered by Beituniya and Ein Qiniya villages lands to the east, Beituniya town to the south, Deir Ibzi village lands to the west  and Deir Ibzi‟ village to the north (ARIJ GIS, 2012) (See Map 1).

Map 1: ‘Ein ‘Arik location and borders

Map 1: ‘Ein ‘Arik location and borders

Source: ARIJ GIS, 2012

Ayn Arik is located at an altitude of 554m above sea level with a mean annual rainfall of 589mm. The average annual temperature is 16 o C and the average annual humidity is approximately 61% (ARIJ GIS, 2012).

Since 1998, Ayn Arik has been governed by a village council which is currently administrated by 8 members appointed by the Palestinian National Authority. The village council is included within the Joint Services Council for Ayn Arik, Deir Ibzi, Kafr Ni‟ma and Bil‟in. It has a permanent (rented) headquarters and owns a vehicle for the collection of solid waste (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

It is the responsibility of the village council to provide a number of services to the residents of Ein Arik, including (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

  1. Infrastructure services, such as water and electricity provision and management.
  2. Solid waste collection, road construction and restoration, street cleaning, and social development services.
  3. Management and supervision of the village kindergarten.

History

Ayn Arik was named due to the many springs located in the area (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

The village council was established over 50 years ago (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011). (See photo below for Ayn Arik village).

Photos of ‘Ein ‘Arik

Photos of ‘Ein ‘Arik

Religious and Archaeological Sites

There is one mosque in the village, Ayn Arik al Omari Mosque, and two churches, the Roman (Guadeloupe) Church and Al Bishara Latin Church. There are a few sires of archaeological interest, including Ash Sheikh Hasan Mosque, the Latin Church, the Roman Church, and some khirab (ruins), including Khirbet Kafr Shayyan, Khirbet Dubeen and Khirbet al Hafi (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011). (See Map 2).

Map 2: Main locations in ‘Ein ‘Arik Village

Map 2: Main locations in ‘Ein ‘Arik Village

Source: ARIJ GIS, 2012

Population

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the total population of Ayn Arik in 2007 was 1,473, of whom 726 were male and 747 female. There were 287 households living in 307 housing units.

Age Groups and Gender

The General Census of Population and Housing carried out by PCBS in 2007 showed the distribution of age groups in Ayn Arik was as follows: 38.8% were less than 15 years of age, 55.7% were between 15 and 64 years of age, and 5.6% were  65 years of age or older. Data additionally showed that the sex ratio of males to females in the village is 97.2:100, meaning that males and females constitute 49.3% and 50.7% of the population respectively.

Families

Ayn Arik residents are from several families, mainly the Shillu, Shaheen, Bassah, Zeitah and Nimer families (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Immigration

The field survey conducted by the ARIJ team showed that approximately 10 people have left the village since the Al Aqsa Intifada in 2000 (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Education

According to the results of the PCBS Population, Housing and Establishment Census-2007, the illiteracy rate among Ayn Arik population was approximately 6.6%, of whom 70% were females. Of the literate population,  11.6%  could  only  read  and  write  with  no  formal  education,  27.6%  had  elementary education, 33.1% had preparatory education, 11.5% had secondary education, and 9.6% completed higher education. Table 1 shows the educational level in the village of Ayn Arik by sex and educational attainment in 2007.

Table 1: ‘Ein ‘Arik population (10 years of age and above) by sex and educational attainment

S

E

x

 

Illiterate

Can

read &

write

 

Elementary

 

Preparatory

 

Secondary

Associate

Diploma

 

Bachelor

Higher

Diploma

Master

 

PhD

 

Unknown

 

Total

M

21

62

150

195

59

22

22

4

535

F

49

62

144

158

64

28

25

1

531

T

70

124

294

353

123

50

47

 

5

 

 

1,066

Source: PCBS, 2009.

The village has one public school run by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoEHE), one private school, and two UNRWA schools (Directorate of Education in Ramallah, 2011) (See Table 2).

Table 2: Schools in ‘Ein ‘Arik by name, stage, sex, and supervising authority

School Name

Supervising Authority

Sex

Ayn Arik Co-educated Secondary School

Government

Mixed

The Latin Patriarch /Ayn Arik School

Private

Mixed

Ayn Arik Co-educated First Elementary School

UNRWA

Mixed

Ein Arik Co-educated Second Elementary School

UNRWA

Mixed

Source: Directorate of Education in Ramallah, 2011

In 2011 there were 456 students, 36 teachers, and 22 classes registered in the village (Directorate of Education in Ramallah, 2011). The average number of students per teacher in the school was 13, whilst the average number of students per class is approximately 21.

Furthermore, there are two kindergartens in Ayn Arik. In total, these kindergartens host 81 children (Directorate of Education in Ramallah, 2011).

Table 3: Kindergartens in ‘Ein ‘Arik by name and supervising authority

Kindergarten

Supervising Authority

Number of Children

Children of Al Aqsa Kindergarten

Private

50

The Latin Patriarch/ Ayn Arik Kindergarten

Civil Christian

31

Source: Directorate of Education in Ramallah, 2011

Health Status

There are a few health centers and services available in Ayn Arik village, including Ayn Arik private health center which includes a physician’s clinic, a dental clinic and a pharmacy, and a physician’s clinic run by the UNRWA. In the absence of any required health service or in emergencies, residents of Ayn Arik use healthcare facilities in Beituniya town or visit Ramallah Governmental Hospital in Ramallah city (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

The health sector in the village faces some obstacles and problems, including (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011):

  1. The village’s main clinic does not operate on a daily basis.
  2. The lack of specialized physicians.
  3. The lack of an ambulance.

Economic Activities

The economy in Ayn Arik  is entirely dependent on the industry sector, which absorbs 100% of the village workforce (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Ayn Arik village has 3 groceries, 3 vegetable and fruit shops, 2 butcheries, and 6 different professional workshops (carpentry, blacksmith etc.). The unemployment rate in Ayn Arik reached around 20% in 2011 (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Labor Force

According to the PCBS Population, Housing and Establishment Census-2007, 35.2% of the Ayn Arik labor force was economically active, of whom 82.4% were employed, and 64.4% were not economically active, of whom 48.6% were students and 34.8% were housekeepers (See Table 4).

Table 4: ‘Ein ‘Arik population (10 years of age and above) by sex and employment status-2007

 

 

S E X

 

Economically Active

 

Not Economically Active

 

 

Un- known

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Employed

 

Currently

Unemployed

 

Unemployed (Never worked)

 

 

Total

 

 

Students

 

House- keeping

 

Unable to work

Not working

& Not looking

for work

 

 

Other

 

 

Total

M

250

46

12

308

169

3

47

2

5

226

1

535

F

59

5

3

67

165

236

59

 

1

461

3

531

T

 

309

 

51

 

15

375

 

334

 

239

 

106

 

2

 

6

687

 

4

1,066

Source: PCBS, 2009.

Agricultural Sector

Ein Arik lies on an area of 5,948 dunums, of which 2,188 dunums are arable land and 215 dunums are dedicated to residential services (see Table 5 and Map 3).

Table 5: Land use and land cover in ‘Ein ‘Arik village in 2010 (area in dunum)

 

 

 

Total

Area

 

 

Built up Area

Agricultural  area

(2,188)

 

 

 

Inland water

 

 

 

Forests

 

 

 

Open

Spaces

Area of

Industrial, Commercial

& Transport Unit

 

Area of Settlement, Military Bases & Wall Zone

 

Permanent

Crops

 

Green- houses

 

Range

-lands

 

Arable lands

5,948

215

2,146

0

0

42

0

69

3,075

401

0

Source: ARIJ – GIS Unit, 2012.

Map 3: Land use/land cover and Segregation Wall in ‘Ein ‘Arik Village

Map 3: Land use/land cover and Segregation Wall in ‘Ein ‘Arik Village

Source: ARIJ GIS, 2012

Table 6 shows the different types of rain-fed and irrigated open-cultivated vegetables in Ayn Arik. The most common crop cultivated within this area is squash.

Table 6: Total  area of rain-fed and irrigated open cultivated vegetables in ‘Ein ‘Arik village (dunum)

Fruity vegetables

Leafy vegetable

Green legumes

Bulbs

Other vegetables

Total area

RF

Irr.

RF

Irr.

RF

Irr.

RF

Irr.

RF

Irr.

RF

Irr.

18

11

0

1

11

1

5

0

5

0

39

13

Rf: Rain-fed, Irr: Irrigated

Source: Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, 2009

Table 7 shows the different types of fruit trees planted in the area. Ayn Arik is famous for olive crops; there are 1,435 dunums of land planted with olive trees in the village.

Table 7: Total area of fruit and olive trees in ‘Ein ‘Arik village (dunum)

Olives

Citrus

Stone-fruits

Pome fruits

Nuts

Other fruits

Total area

Rf

Irr.

Rf

Irr.

Rf

Irr.

Rf

Irr.

Rf

Irr.

Rf

Irr.

Rf

Irr.

1,435

0

5

0

11

0

0

0

42

0

102

0

1,595

0

Rf: Rain-fed, Irr: Irrigated

Source: Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, 2009

In terms of field crops and forage in Ayn Arik, cereals (particularly wheat) are the most cultivated, covering an area of about 40 dunums (See Table 8).

Table 8: Total area of field crops in ‘Ein ‘Arik village (dunum)

Cereals

Bulbs

Dry legumes

Oil crops

Forage crops

Stimulating crops

Other crops

Total area

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

Rf

Irr

40

0

12

0

15

0

0

0

10

0

0

0

0

0

77

0

Rf: Rain-fed, Irr: Irrigated

Source: Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, 2009

The difference between the two sets of results obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and by ARIJ’s GIS Unit in sizes of agricultural areas is explained by the fact that the Ministry of Agriculture and the Palestinian  Central  Bureau  of  Statistics  (2010)  conducted  a  survey  which  used  a  definition  of agricultural areas based on land ownership. Therefore, the areas included in the survey were those of actual holdings of agricultural areas instead of seasonal ones. The survey did not consider fragmented and small seasonal cultivated areas in residential and agricultural areas. ARIJ’s survey, however, indicated  the  existence  of  a  high  proportion  of  small  and  fragmented  holdings  (home  gardens) throughout  the  occupied  Palestinian  territories,  thus  accounting  for  the  larger  area  of  agricultural holdings calculated by ARIJ.

The field survey shows that 3% of the residents in Ayn Arik rear and keep domestic animals such as sheep and goats (See Table 9).

Table 9: Livestock in ‘Ein ‘Arik village

Cows*

Sheep

Goats

Camels

Horses

Donkeys

Mules

Broilers

Layers

Bee Hives

0

246

636

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

*Including cows, bull calves, heifer calves and bulls

Source: Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, 2009

There are approximately 15 kilometers of agricultural roads in the village, divided as follows (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011):

Table 10: Agricultural Roads in ‘Ein ‘Arik Village and their Lengths

Suitability of Agricultural Roads

Length (km)

For vehicles

2

For tractors and agricultural machinery only

3

For animals only

7

Unsuitable

3

Source: Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011

The agricultural sector in the village faces some problems, mainly (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011):

  • The economic infeasibility.
  • The lack of capital.

Institutions and Services

Ayn Arik village has a village council and a post office division (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Infrastructure and Natural Resources

Electricity and Telecommunication Services:

Ayn Arik has been connected to a public electricity network since 1986. It is served by Jerusalem Electricity Company, which is the main source of electricity in the village and approximately 98% of the housing units in the village are connected to the network. However, the village residents face some problems concerning electricity, primarily the weak electrical power supply (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011):

Ayn Arik is connected to a telecommunication network and approximately 90% of the housing units within the village boundaries are connected to phone lines (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Transportation Services:

There are 4 public buses and 1 taxi providing transportation to residents of Ayn Arik village. Residents seeking to travel are often delayed by the Segregation Wall (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011). The village has 5km of main roads which are paved and in good condition and 3km of secondary roads, also paved and in good condition (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Water Resources:

Ayn Arik is provided with water by the Jerusalem Water Department through the public water network established in 2000. Approximately 98% of housing units in the village are connected to the water network (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

The quantity of water supplied to Ayn Arik in 2010 was approximately 41,064 cubic meters. The estimated rate of water supply per capita is therefore about 76 liters/day. However, no Ayn Arik citizen consumes this amount of water due to water losses, which are estimated to be approximately 26.5%. These losses happen at the main source, major transport lines, in the distribution network, and at the household level; therefore, the actual rate of water consumption per capita in Ayn Arik is 56 liters per day (Jerusalem Water Authority, 2011). This is a low rate compared with the minimum quantity of 100 liters/capita/day proposed by the World Health Organization.

To determine water costs, the water authority has adopted an upward rate where the price of water increases with increasing consumption. Table 11 shows the price of water by category of consumption.

Table 11: Water tariffs of Jerusalem Water Authority adopted since 01.01.2012

 

Consumption

Category (m³)

 

Domestic

(NIS/m³)

 

Industrial

(NIS/m³)

 

Tourist

(NIS/m³)

 

Commercial

(NIS/m³)

Public

Institutions

(NIS/m³)

0 – 5

4.5

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.4

5.1 – 10

4.5

5.6

5.6

5.6

4.5

10.1 – 20

5.6

6.8

6.8

6.8

5.6

 

20.1 – 30

6.8

8.1

8.1

8.1

6.8

30.1+

9

9.9

10.8

9

9

Source: Jerusalem Water Authority, 2012

Ayn Arik has approximately 60 rainwater harvesting cisterns, in addition to two water springs (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011) (See Table 12 for more information on the springs).

Table 12: Water Springs in ‘Ein ‘Arik

Name of Spring

Type of Use

Average Pumping Rate (m³/ year)

Ayn Arik al Fauqa Spring

Agriculture & Domestic

180,491

Ayn Arik at Tahta Spring

Agriculture

67,382

Source: PWA, 2010

Sanitation:

Ayn Arik lacks a public sewerage network with most of the village residents using cesspits for the disposal of wastewater (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Based on the estimated daily per capita water consumption, the estimated amount of wastewater generated per day is approximately 66 cubic meters or 24,146 cubic meters annually. At the individual level in the village, it is estimated that the per capita wastewater generation is approximately 39 liters per day. The wastewater collected by cesspits is discharged by wastewater tankers directly to open areas or nearby valleys without concern for the environment. There is no wastewater treatment either at the source or at the disposal sites and this poses a serious threat to the environment and to public health (ARIJ – WERU, 2012).

Solid Waste Management:

The Joint Services Council/ Group VII for Solid Waste is responsible for managing the collection and disposal of solid waste generated by citizens and establishments in the village. As the process of solid waste management is costly, a monthly fee of 15 NIS is charged to the population served by domestic solid waste collection and transportation services. However, only 60% of these fees are collected from the citizens (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

Most of the population in Ayn Arik benefit from the solid waste services, whereby waste is collected from households, institutions, shops, and public squares in plastic bags and then transferred to 40 containers spread throughout the locality. The Joint Council collects the solid waste from the containers once a week and transports it using a waste vehicle to a dumping site shared with neighboring localities, 5km from the village, where it is burnt and buried (Ayn Arik Village Council, 2011).

The daily per capita rate of solid waste production in Ayn Arik is 0.7kg. Thus the estimated amount of solid waste produced per day from the Ayn Arik residents is nearly 1 ton, or 376 tons per year (ARIJ – WERU, 2012).

Environmental Conditions

Like  other  villages  and  towns  in  the  governorate,  Ayn Arik experiences  several  environmental problems which must be addressed and solved. These problems can be identified as follows:

Water Crisis

  • Water is cut off by the Jerusalem Water Authority for long periods of time during summer in several neighborhoods of the village for several reasons:

         (1)  Israeli control over Palestinian water resources causes problems in the organization of water pumping and its distribution among populations. The Jerusalem Water Authority distributes water to various areas on an interval basis because the amount of water available is not sufficient to supply everyone’s needs simultaneously.

         (2)  High rate of water losses, because the water network is old and in need of rehabilitation and renovation.

  • Lack of a public water reservoir in the village to be used by residents during water shortages.

Wastewater Management

The absence of a public sewage network means that in Ein Arik residents are forced to use unhygienic cesspits for the disposal of wastewater, and/or to discharge wastewater in the streets. This is particularly common in winter, as citizens cannot afford the high cost of sewage tankers during this period. These methods facilitate environmental damage, health problems, and the spread of epidemics and diseases in the village. This wastewater also contaminates the groundwater and water collected in household cisterns (rainwater harvesting cisterns) because most cesspits are built without lining, allowing wastewater to enter into the ground and avoiding the need to use sewage tankers.  Moreover, the untreated wastewater collected from cesspits by sewage tankers is disposed of in open areas without concern for the damage it causes to the environment and to residents’ health.

Solid Waste Management:

The  lack  of  a  central  sanitary  landfill  to  serve  in  Ayn Arik and  the  other  neighboring communities in the governorate is due mainly to the obstacles created by the Israeli authorities for local and national institutions in granting licenses to establish such a landfill, because the appropriate land is within Area C and under Israeli control. Additionally, the implementation of such projects depends on funding from donor countries. The lack of a sanitary landfill is a source of pollution to the groundwater and soil through the leachate produced from the solid waste, and produces bad odors and distortion of the landscape.

Impact of the Israeli Occupation

Geopolitical status in ‘Ein ‘Arik

According to the Oslo II Interim Agreement signed in 28th September 1995 between the Palestinian Liberation  Organization  (PLO)  and  Israel, Ein Arik  was  divided  into  areas  “B”  and  “C”. Approximately 435 dunams (7.3% of the village’s total area) were assigned as area B, where the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) has a complete control over civil matters but Israel continues to have overriding responsibility for security. Area B constitutes most of the inhabited Palestinian areas, including municipalities, villages and some camps. The rest of the village’s area, constituting 5,514 dunams (92.7% of the total area), is classified as area C, where Israel retains full control over security and administration related to the territory. In area C Palestinian building and land management is prohibited unless through consent or authorization by the Israeli Civil Administration. Most of the lands lying within the area C are agricultural areas and open spaces (table 13).

Table 13: The Geopolitical Divisions of ‘Ein ‘Arik Ramallah Governorate

 

Area

 

Area in dunams

Percent of Total village

area

Area A

0

0

Area B

435

7.3

Area C

5,514

92.7

Nature Reserve

0

0

Total

5,949

100

Source: Source: ARIJ-GIS, 2012

Ein ‘Arik village and the Israeli Occupation Practices

The Israeli Occupation authorities confiscated thousands of dunams of land for the construction of the Segregation Wall south of the village and on Beituniya lands. This led to the isolation of Ayn Arik and the neighboring villages from the northwest communities of Jerusalem Governorate and from the agricultural lands in Beituniya and its neighboring villages that were isolated behind the Wall.

Following the outbreak of the second Palestinian Intifada in September 2000, the Israeli occupation authorities established hundreds of Israeli military checkpoints throughout the West Bank. These include a permanent military checkpoint that hinders the communication of villages west of Ramallah, including Ayn Arik, and prevents them from using the main linking bypass road no. 443. This road is exclusively for the use of the Israeli settlers.

Ayn Arik, like many Palestinian villages, was subject to the Israeli incursions aimed at spreading panic and terror  among  Palestinian  citizens.  These incursions  included  attacks,  arrests  of  Palestinians, invading homes, and searching and tampering with their contents.

Issued Military Orders in ‘Ein ‘Arik Village

The Israeli Occupation Army has issued many military orders to confiscate lands in Ayn Arik for the construction of the Segregation Wall, including the following:

  • Israeli Military Order No. (21/96/T): Issued on the 31st of January 1996. It confiscates lands from Ayn Arik and Beituniya localities for the purpose of establishing a 3.2km road between the two localities to connect with Ofar Israeli Military Base.
  • Israeli Military Order No. (03/98/T): Issued on the 4th of November 1998. It confiscates lands from Ayn Arik, Deir Ibzi‟, Beituniya and Ein Qiniya localities for the construction of a road 4470m long and 80m wide.

Development Plans and Projects

Implemented Projects

Ayn Arik village council has implemented several development projects in Ayn Arik during the past five years (See Table 14).

Table 14: Implemented Development Plans and Projects in ‘Ein ‘Arik During the Last Five Years

Name of the Project

Type

Year

Donor

Pavement of internal roads

Infrastructure

2010

Ministry of Finance

Construction of Ayn Arik Co-educated Secondary School

Educational

2010

Arab Banks Fund

Source: ‘Ein ‘Arik Village Council, 2011

Proposed Projects

Ayn Arik Village Council, in cooperation with the civil society organizations in the village and the village residents, hopes to implement several projects in the coming years. The project ideas were developed during the PRA workshop conducted by ARIJ staff in the village. The projects are as follows, in order of priority from the perspectives of workshop participants:

  1. Constructing a services complex.
  2. Establishing a sewerage network (5 km).
  3. Establishing a health clinic with the necessary equipment and facilities.
  4. Constructing agricultural roads (10 km).
  5. Reclaiming agricultural lands.
  6. Rehabilitating the public road.
  7. Expanding the electricity and water networks (2 km).
  8. Constructing retaining walls (6 km).
  9. Establishing a public park.
  10. Restoring archaeological sites in the village.

Locality Development Priorities and Needs

Ayn Arik suffers from  a  significant  shortage  of  infrastructure  and services.  Table  15  shows  the development priorities and needs in the village according to the village council’s point of view.

Table 15: Development Priorities and Needs in ‘Ein ‘Arik

No.

Sector

Strongly

Needed

Needed

Not a

Priority

Notes

Infrastructural Needs

1

Opening and Pavement of Roads

*

 

 

12km

2

Rehabilitation of Old Water Networks

 

 

*

 

3

Extending the Water Network to Cover New Built up

Areas

 

*

 

 

2km

4

Construction of New Water Networks

 

 

*

 

5

Rehabilitation/   Construction   of   New   Wells   or

Springs

 

*

 

 

2 springs

6

Construction of Water Reservoirs

 

 

*

 

7

Construction of a Sewage Disposal Network

 

 

*

 

8

Construction of a New Electricity Network

 

 

*

 

9

Providing Containers for Solid Waste Collection

*

 

 

20 containers

10

Providing Vehicles for Collecting Solid Waste

*

 

 

1

11

Providing a Sanitary Landfill

*

 

 

 

Health Needs

1

Building of New Clinics or Health Care Centres

*

 

 

a health center

2

Rehabilitation of Old Clinics or Health Care Centres

 

 

*

 

3

Purchasing of Medical Equipment and Tools

 

 

*

 

Educational Needs

1

Building of New Schools

 

 

*

 

2

Rehabilitation of Old Schools

 

 

*

 

3

Purchasing of New Equipment for Schools

 

 

*

 

Agriculture Needs

1

Rehabilitation of Agricultural Lands

 

 

*

 

2

Building Rainwater Harvesting Cisterns

*

 

 

50 cisterns

3

Construction of Barracks for Livestock

 

 

*

 

4

Veterinary Services

 

 

*

 

5

Seeds and Hay for Animals

 

 

*

 

6

Construction of New Greenhouses

*

 

 

20 greenhouses

7

Rehabilitation of Greenhouses

 

 

*

 

8

Field Crops Seeds

*

 

 

 

9

Plants and Agricultural Supplies

*

 

 

 

5km are sub roads and 7km are agricultural roads

Source: Ein Arik Village Council, 2011

References:

  • Applied  Research  Institute  –  Jerusalem  (ARIJ),  2012. Geographic  Information  Systems  and Remote Sensing Unit; Land Use Analysis (2010) – Half Meter High Accuracy. Bethlehem – Palestine.
  • Applied Research  Institute – Jerusalem  (ARIJ),  2012.  Geographic Information  Systems  and Remote Sensing unit Database. Bethlehem – Palestine.
  • Applied Research  Institute – Jerusalem (ARIJ). 2012. Water & Environment Research Unit Database (WERU). Bethlehem – Palestine.
  • Ein ‘Arik Village Council, 2011.
  • Jerusalem Water Authority (for Ramallah & Al Bireh areas) (2011). Detection showing the amount of water sold from 1/1/2010 till 31/12/2010. RamallahPalestine.
  • Jerusalem Water Authority (2012). Jerusalem Water Authority’s Website; Data Retrieved on the first of March. http://www.jwu.org/newweb/atemplate.php?id=87.
  • Ministry of Education & Higher Education (MOHE) – Ramallah, 2011. Directorate of Education; A database of schools (2010/2011). RamallahPalestine.
  • Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), 2009. Directorate of Agriculture Data (2008/2009). RamallahPalestine.
  • Palestinian  Central  Bureau  of  Statistics.  2009.  Ramallah, Palestine:  General  Census  of Population and Housing Censuses, 2007.
  • Palestinian  Water  Authority.  2011.  Ramallah,  Palestine: Quantities  of  Water  Supply  & Consumption in the West Bank Governorates, 2009.
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